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mineralogy elements Si Silicon

Si - Silicon - METALLOIDS

Silicon, also known by the chemical symbol "Si", is a chemical element of the metalloid family and the second most common element in the earth's crust after oxygen. It is about 25.7% of all the mass of the planet and is found in sedimentary rocks, shales, sand and quartz and in some soils.

Physically, silicon is a solid element and can be white or tinged with gray. It has an atomic mass of 28 and its atomic number is 14. It occurs naturally in silicon oxide (SiO2), which is the main component of sand and quartz.

Silicon has a large number of interesting properties. It is relatively stable in air at ordinary temperatures and has a high concentration of a free electron, which makes it a satisfactory conductor of electricity. It is relatively inert, which makes it relatively unreactive to other elements and resistant to corrosive chemicals.

Silicon is one of the materials of choice for the manufacture of semiconductors and electronic components. It is also used in the manufacture of glasses and ceramics, and has medical applications, including cancer treatment and medical imaging.
1410°
2355°
28.0854
-4
-3
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
14
Si
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
2
8
4
1.9
8.1517
Synthetic
Radioactive
Liquid
Gaseous
Silicon Electronic configuration diagram
Electronic configuration diagram

Name Silicon
Number 14
Atomic 28.0854
Symbol Si
Fusion 1410
Boiling 2355
Density 2.3296
Period 3
Group 14
Discovery 1824 Berzelius
Abundance 282000
Radius 1.5
Electronegativity 1.9
Ionization 8.1517
Number of isotopes 8
Electronic configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Oxidation states -4,-3,-2,-1,1,2,3,4
Electron by energy level 2,8,4

Mineral Hardness Density
Abenakiite-(Ce) 4.00 / 4.00 3.21
Abswurmbachite 6.50 / 6.50 4.96
Actinolite 5.50 / 5.50 2.98
Adachiite
Adrianite
Aegirine 6.00 / 6.50 3.50
Aegirine-augite 6.00 / 6.00 3.40
Aenigmatite 5.00 / 6.00 3.74
Aerinite 3.00 / 3.00 2.48
Afghanite 5.50 / 6.00 2.55
Afwillite 3.00 / 3.00 2.62
Agakhanovite-(Y) 6.00 / 6.00 2.67
Agardite-(Ce) 3.00 / 3.00 3.72
Agate 6.50 / 7.00 2.60
Agrellite 5.50 / 5.50 2.88
Ahrensite 4.14
Ajoite 2.96
Akatoreite 6.00 / 6.00 3.48
Akermanite 5.00 / 6.00 2.94
Akimotoite
Aklimaite
Alamosite 4.50 / 4.50 6.49
Albite 7.00 / 7.00 2.61
Aleksandrovite 4.00 / 4.50 3.07
Alflarsenite 4.00 / 4.00 2.61
Aliettite 1.00 / 2.00
Allanite-(Ce) 5.50 / 5.50 3.30
Allanite-(La) 6.00 / 6.00 3.93
Allanite-(Nd)
Allanite-(Y) 5.50 / 5.50 3.30
Alleghanyite 6.00 / 5.00 4.00
Allophane 3.00 / 3.00 1.90
Alloriite 5.00 / 5.00 2.35
Alluaivite 5.00 / 6.00 2.76
Almandine 7.00 / 8.00 4.09
Almarudite 6.00 / 6.00 2.71
Alnaperbøeite-(Ce)
Alsakharovite-Zn 5.00 / 5.00 2.90
Altisite 6.00 / 6.00 2.64
Alumino-ferrobarroisite
Alumino-ferrohornblende
Alumino-ferrotschermakite
Alumino-ferrowinchite
Alumino-magnesiohornblende
Alumino-magnesiotaramite
Alumino-ottoliniite
Aluminobarroisite 5.00 / 6.00 2.94
Aluminoceladonite
Aluminocerite-(Ce) 5.00 / 5.00 4.68
Aluminokatophorite 5.00 / 6.00
Aluminotschermakite 5.00 / 6.00
Aluminowinchite
Alumoåkermanite 4.00 / 5.00 3.00
Alumovesuvianite
Amazonite 6.00 / 6.00 2.56
Amesite 2.50 / 3.00 2.77
Amethyst 7.00 / 7.00 2.60
Ametrine 7.00 / 7.00 2.60
Amicite 5.00 / 5.50 2.06
Aminoffite 5.50 / 5.50 2.94
Ammonioleucite 5.50 / 6.00 2.29
Amstallite 4.00 / 4.00 2.40
Analcime 5.00 / 5.00 2.30
Anandite 3.00 / 4.00 3.94
Andalusite 6.50 / 7.00 3.13
Andesine 7.00 / 7.00 2.66
Andradite 6.50 / 7.00 3.70
Andrémeyerite 5.50 / 5.50 4.15
Andrianovite 5.00 / 5.00 3.02
Ankinovichite 2.50 / 3.00 2.48
Annite 2.50 / 3.00 3.17
Anorthite 6.00 / 6.00 2.72
Anorthoclase 6.00 / 6.00 2.57
Anthophyllite 5.00 / 6.00 2.85
Antigorite 3.50 / 4.00 2.50
Apachite 2.00 / 2.00 2.80
Aqualite 4.00 / 5.00 2.66
Aradite
Arapovite 5.50 / 6.00 3.43
Ardennite-(As) 6.00 / 7.00 3.62
Ardennite-(V) 6.00 / 7.00 3.55
Arfvedsonite 5.50 / 6.00 3.44
Arhbarite
Armbrusterite 3.50 / 3.50 2.78
Armenite 7.50 / 7.50 2.76
Armstrongite 4.50 / 4.50 2.70
Arrojadite-(KNa)
Arrojadite-(SrFe)
Asbecasite 6.50 / 7.00 3.70
Ashburtonite 4.69
Ashcroftine-(Y) 5.00 / 5.00 2.61
Asisite 3.50 / 3.50 8.00
Askagenite-(Nd) 6.00 / 6.00 4.38
Aspidolite 2.00 / 3.00 2.89
Astrophyllite 3.00 / 3.50 3.30
Atelisite-(Y) 4.26
Attakolite 5.00 / 5.00 3.09
Augite 5.00 / 6.50 3.20
Aventurine 7.00 / 7.00 2.60